The results section state findings of your experiments so you have to be wary while describing the outcomes to communicate to your readers exactly what you experienced. The results section involves the summary of data collected and your observations that you carried out during your scientific experiments. Here are the steps to follow for writing a research paper. 

Record everything

When you carry out experiments in your lab, you should make a record of all events that occurred during your research in your digital diary. At the laboratory stage, you will be chronicling every phenomenon without imposing your logic. Make a catalogue of what you planned to do, and what happened during experiments. Take notes of each happening in chronological order during observation. Once you have recorded everything, the next step will be choosing the data from your lab records concerning key variables. These key variables are experimental observations that you will choose as the focus of your paper. 

Data organisation

Before writing the results section, you need to organise your data that will help your readers understand the structure inherent in data. In the results section, you have to present your data without interpretation. At this stage, you should let your data lead you instead of focusing on how your data should look, and the way you want your data to present. You can organise your data by many presentations such as tables, charts, and graphs by shuffling your data into several combinations such as a relationship between two or more variables and sorting the data in size, shape, gender, height, and colour. There can be several arrangements for presenting data; you will pick the one that is neat and concise. 

Writing results

When you write the results section, do not jump at the main crux of your experimental observations immediately. First, you should give a brief overview of your research to your readers. For instance, your introductory report begins like this if an experimental subject is a population: “Total 170 people filled out a questionnaire. Three individuals’ forms were excluded because sections were illegible.”

However, if you conducted no experiments, the introductory phrase can begin like this: “The course of infection was…” or “Students who have had little exposure to the English language…”

Once you have completed your general observation subsection, you will describe the kernel of your research. This is the section where you will insert visual presentations such as tables, charts and graphs. You will recount structural, textual, shape and colour details of your observations. You will also describe the patterns of changes.

The conclusions drawn, whether from survey analysis, experimental design, or any other research approaches, are useful only if they are valid. One has to obtain answers to “How true are the findings?, How well do they represent or support the concept you are studying?.” This is when validity comes into the picture. 

Validity determines whether the research measures what it is intended to and approximates the truthfulness of the findings. 

Validity, segregated into internal, external, content, face validity, etc. is impacted by several factors. 

Some of the factors that impact internal validity are subject variability, size of subject population, attrition, time given for the data collection, sensitivity of instrument, etc. On the other hand, external validity gets affected by aspects such as population characteristics, interaction of subject selection, descriptive explicitness of the independent variable, data collection methodology, effect of time, research environment, etc.

Among various types, the most commonly used validity include:

  • Face validity 

Face validity refers to the degree to which a test seems to measure what it claims to measure. Face validity, considered as a minimum and basic index of content validity, is determined after the construction of the test. It is the simplest and least precise approach of determining the validity and relies entirely on the expertise and familiarity of the scholar. Face validity ensures that the measure appears to be evaluating the intended construct under study. However, it is generally utilised to describe the appearance of validity without performing empirical tests. For instance, estimating the speed of a bike based on its outward appearance. 

  • Content validity

This type of validity is the extent to which the questions on the instrument and the scores from the questions provide possible questions that can be asked about the content. Content validity makes sure that the questionnaire consists of necessary set of items to tap the concept. Content validity depends on the judgement of experts in the subject domain and is interested in evaluating present performance rather than predicting future performance. Here the unclear and obscure questions can be modified, and ineffective or non functioning questions can be removed. For e.g., if we want to test knowledge on Indian Geography, you cannot have questions limited to the geography of Delhi, the capital of India. Upon determining the truthfulness, in need for help in  penning down the validity section in your dissertation? Consult UK dissertation writers. 

  • Criterion-related validity 

This kind of validity is used to predict current or future performance. Criterion-related validity correlates test findings with another criterion of interest and deals with the relationship between scale scores. It examines how the scale alters individuals on a criterion it is expected to predict. That is, when we the future performance is expected based on the scores that are currently obtained by the measure, it correlate the scores acquired with the performance. For instance, a hands-on driving test is considered to be an accurate test of driving skills. The test may be repeated by the paper-pen test to compare the validity of the test. 

Validity is a mandate for research in all domains. Although the errors in validity cannot be eliminated completely, achieving 95% of truthfulness of results can make your research a potential one. If you need some help in including the same in methodology section, take aid from the best UK dissertation writers.

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A dissertation is the final academic project in your master’s graduation program. Typically, you may not have written papers of such intrinsic level and complex nature before. For this reason, you may find it difficult on how to approach it and write it in the best manner. You will surely want to present a dissertation that will reflect your research, writing and editing skills in the best possible light. Read on the first ten tips in the series of 99 tips for an effective dissertation.

  1. Remain Focused

During the course of dissertation writing and research, it is crucial that you remain focused and do not lose your research base.

  1. Be Positive

Dissertation writing, research and editing may take a toll on you. During the source of your dissertation writing, you may often get frustrated when you may not be able to find the ideal ways to research, write or compile your findings. But remain positive always and you will surely overcome all the obstacles.

  1. Create an action plan

To avoid any confusion, write down the action plan for the coming months. Devote time for each work, including selecting topic, research, result compilation, writing and editing.

  1. Communicate with your guide

Maintain regular communication with your guide and take timely advice from them.

  1. Smartly manage your time

Devote time wisely to ensure that you give enough time for each of the work you need to undertake during the course of your dissertation writing.

  1. Fix the time for your research paper

Maintain a schedule when you are going to work on your dissertation, whether in the morning, evening or night.

  1. Discuss with your peers

You can have a healthy discussion with your peers about your dissertation and get ideas from them.

  1. Take breaks

Do not stress out on your dissertation or constantly worry about it. Instead take timely breaks from dissertation workings and spend quality time with your friends or family members. It will relieve your stress and you can continue with your research work with renewed energy.

  1. Start Writing early

Get on writing your dissertation from the early stages. It will help in avoiding any sort of confusion and you will find your dissertation writing on track and within the time frame.

  1. Research well

Research about the topic which you have chosen over the internet and get relevant matters saved in a document. You can also visit libraries to gather relevant facts related to your topic!