The conclusions drawn, whether from survey analysis, experimental design, or any other research approaches, are useful only if they are valid. One has to obtain answers to “How true are the findings?, How well do they represent or support the concept you are studying?.” This is when validity comes into the picture. 

Validity determines whether the research measures what it is intended to and approximates the truthfulness of the findings. 

Validity, segregated into internal, external, content, face validity, etc. is impacted by several factors. 

Some of the factors that impact internal validity are subject variability, size of subject population, attrition, time given for the data collection, sensitivity of instrument, etc. On the other hand, external validity gets affected by aspects such as population characteristics, interaction of subject selection, descriptive explicitness of the independent variable, data collection methodology, effect of time, research environment, etc.

Among various types, the most commonly used validity include:

  • Face validity 

Face validity refers to the degree to which a test seems to measure what it claims to measure. Face validity, considered as a minimum and basic index of content validity, is determined after the construction of the test. It is the simplest and least precise approach of determining the validity and relies entirely on the expertise and familiarity of the scholar. Face validity ensures that the measure appears to be evaluating the intended construct under study. However, it is generally utilised to describe the appearance of validity without performing empirical tests. For instance, estimating the speed of a bike based on its outward appearance. 

  • Content validity

This type of validity is the extent to which the questions on the instrument and the scores from the questions provide possible questions that can be asked about the content. Content validity makes sure that the questionnaire consists of necessary set of items to tap the concept. Content validity depends on the judgement of experts in the subject domain and is interested in evaluating present performance rather than predicting future performance. Here the unclear and obscure questions can be modified, and ineffective or non functioning questions can be removed. For e.g., if we want to test knowledge on Indian Geography, you cannot have questions limited to the geography of Delhi, the capital of India. Upon determining the truthfulness, in need for help in  penning down the validity section in your dissertation? Consult UK dissertation writers. 

  • Criterion-related validity 

This kind of validity is used to predict current or future performance. Criterion-related validity correlates test findings with another criterion of interest and deals with the relationship between scale scores. It examines how the scale alters individuals on a criterion it is expected to predict. That is, when we the future performance is expected based on the scores that are currently obtained by the measure, it correlate the scores acquired with the performance. For instance, a hands-on driving test is considered to be an accurate test of driving skills. The test may be repeated by the paper-pen test to compare the validity of the test. 

Validity is a mandate for research in all domains. Although the errors in validity cannot be eliminated completely, achieving 95% of truthfulness of results can make your research a potential one. If you need some help in including the same in methodology section, take aid from the best UK dissertation writers.

Preparing  a dissertation is one of the most demanding and daunting tasks during the Master’s journey. Although it helps you get one-step closer to acquiring the degree you always dreamt of, you may not realize the challenges that coexist with the writing process. While there is a group of students who are rejoicing on the completion of the dissertation, there is another set of students who are preparing themselves to march into the battle. Are you one among them who is all excited and nervous about the writing process? But be aware of a few warning signs before you begin with the writing process and that can ease your woes. Some of them include:

  1. Excess information – While writing a dissertation, you might want to include every piece of  information available that are relevant to your study. But the truth is, you cannot fit in every bit of information into your dissertation. You will have to pick the most suitable and required content that shapes your dissertation from the gathered information and incorporate it. Also, know that the majority of the time institutes demand word count (which is to be strictly followed). If you don’t know how to include only the necessary information, take help from the writers offering dissertation help in UK.  
  2. Selecting a great guide – Before starting to write your dissertation you find a great supervisor who can guide you throughout the process and make the overall experience much better. You need not choose someone who is a subject-matter ace, but one who is capable of helping you in the writing process would be the right choice. Pick someone who is easily available, positive and gives you feedback from time to time.
  3. Expectation of the reader – Students often go through this stage during the writing process. I.e. inability to reach up to the reader’s expectations. People may look for some mind-blowing topics in your dissertation or historical events even though you are not working on those concepts. Remember, it’s you who is working on the dissertation and you need to know it’s importance. Ignore the rest.
  4. Justify your choice – In your research methodology section, explain the reason behind choosing the particular research and tool. Describe the complex steps involved in the research procedure and the crucial reason for opting for specific research procedure & tool. Also provide a brief description about the special characteristics of the research tool (if any).
  5. Freak out time – There comes a time when you will end up freaking during the writing process. You may probably feel that whatever you wrote is a complete disaster and may even start penning down a new one. But stop there. Don’t start rewriting unless there are serious flaws in your work or your supervisor asks you to rewrite.

No matter how hard it is, take up the challenge and complete the dissertation. However, if you are running out of time, you can consider taking assistance from writers providing dissertation help in UK.

Dissertation is proved to be a milestone in a research scholar’s life as it helps him/her to entrench the foot in the academics. However, crafting a perfect dissertation is a tough row to hoe. Majority of the time, while working on your dissertation you might find it hard to pen down your ideas or organise multiple chapters in an apt manner. This is when the ‘mind map’ technique comes into the picture. Although the term mind mapping is relatively new, utilising diagrams to ‘map’ the information has been around for decades.

So, what exactly is a mind map?

A mind map is nothing but a diagram that is used to visually organise the information. A mind map is developed around a single concept and is drawn in the center of a blank page to which associated  images sentences/words are added.

Importance of mind mapping

Today, mind map is used by the research scholars all around the world to organise their academic documents such as dissertation, thesis etc. Some of the benefits of mind mapping include:

  • Helps you generate ideas for your dissertation
  • Structures/organise your thoughts
  • Lets you visualise the execution of the ideas

Learning to mind map can be a tedious task. To help you out with the process, we with the help of team offering professional dissertation help, have enlisted 3 steps to mind mapping.

  • BrainstormBrainstorming can be done in a group or individually. Possible ways of brainstorming are
  • Writing down everything you can think of about your research topic in a piece of paper.
  • The purpose of brainstorming is to merely gather the information and put in onto the page. Hence Do not try to organise the information at once.
  • Make use of phrases or keywords to write your ideas.
  • Organise the information – Once done with the brainstorming, organise the information by identifying the critical themes and linking the relevant information to the main themes as follows:
  • Circle/highlight the major themes
  • Connect the sub-points to crucial categories
  • Complete the mind map – In the final step, rewrite the information under suitable headings as a sub-points to make the mind map easier to read.


  1. Use codes, diagrams, symbols, and dimensions throughout the mind map.
  2. Starting from the central theme, the lines should be connected to the different headings.
  3. For visual stimulation, use multiple colors throughout your mind map.
  4. Use radial hierarchy to keep your mind map clear.

Mind map, when done in the right manner, can benefit your dissertation writing process. Hence it becomes a necessity to take immense care while mind mapping. However, if you are not confident with your mind map or need some help with your dissertation, take aid from the team providing professional dissertation help.

You cannot get admission in any top ranking UK university unless your research proposal gets approved. However, the irony is that more than 80% scholars face rejection on the first go when they submit a proposal to their university committee. About 15% of the PhD applicants do not even get a call for interview after submitting their PhD proposals.

Hiring professionals for proposal development service in UK is often the sole remedy for struggling scholars who are caught in the web of revisions and rejections. Causes of dismissal of a research proposal are varied, so we have got you 5 most common reasons cited by top companies providing proposal writing services in UK.

**We also extracted tips for you to perform better in your next research writing project!  

  • You didn’t follow the formatting guidelines

The first thing that a research board will analyse is whether or not you have followed submission guidelines. Make sure that you are fully aware of your university’s instructions and haven’t slipped up anywhere in layout, margins, font size, word limit, referencing style, headings (and subheadings) and so forth.

  1. You forgot the essentials
  • Importance of your problem statement

There is an infinite number of problems out of which you have to pick the one that is worth solving, and you also have to convince your university staff that your research will result in solutions that would be contributing to the area of your research. This is  tough task to do, if not impossible. Conveying the analytical importance of your research to the committee is essential.

For instance, if your topic is “Challenges encountered by cybercrime investigation authorities,” you have to mention problems, for example, gathering of evidence, that are commonly faced by authorities to catch perpetrators. Further, you will also notify how these impediments wreak havoc on investigation and are increasing the rate of cybercrime. You will also give details of expected solutions such as software to detect suspicious activities, widespread awareness among people etc. that will help prevent cybercrime. This will make your committee understand your research problem and expected outcomes that stand to benefit society (among others).

  • Why this time

You are not alone who has been working on the same problem. Your research committee will ask you if there is any possibility to go ahead with the same problem and get any novel output.

For instance, having researched the effects of “Postpartum depression on mothers and their infants development” for decades, many medicines have been put out to control psychological impairment of kids who had been neglected by their moms due to depression. So what new can be done to solve this problem?

You have to tell how different studies have helped pharmaceuticals discover causes of postpartum depression that assisted them to manufacture medicines or healers accordingly. Besides, how your research is going to be unique to find a solution to treat a cause that has been left unexplored to date. Finding a suitable company providing Proposal Development Service in UK involved in pharmaceutical research works will be a rational decision in this case.

  • Why you are the right person

You have convinced your readers that the problem you have chosen is worthwhile to be solved, but your work doesn’t end here. Research proposals can get rejected due to inappropriate qualifications of the researcher despite workable research ideas. You have to make the committee believe that you are the correct person that fits the role. You have to indicate your fitness related to subject knowledge, research abilities required for a PhD research in the chosen field.

  1. The research objective is not clearly stated

You must ensure that you have stated the objective of your research explicitly. The easier to find information in a proposal, the higher the chances of acceptance. The objectives must be in line with the problem statement presented, and indicate research worthiness to academia.

  1. There is a mismatch between research question and results drawn

The overall purpose of writing a research proposal is to highlight the objectives to be met and questions to be answered, and predict the probable outcomes of research. If there is a misfit between the two, the essence of conducting research is dissolved.

  1. Adopted research methodology is not appropriate

The committee might question your choice of research paradigm, research approach or even the research method used. Well-supported justifications for the choices made stand to lend your research a greater chance of approval.

A research proposal must reflect your credibility and writing ability to convey the right message to target audiences. So before submitting a proposal to your committee, you should thoroughly edit it to check subject-verb agreement, spellings and grammatical errors, along with checking for other essential ingredients. Follow these guidelines to mend disastrous errors committed during proposal development, or opt for some proposal development service provider in UK.  

With the consideration that academic assignments play a significant role in helping one to build student’s academic career, it is technically necessary for one to know the best place to get the academic projects done. To put an end to all such problems, 99Dissertations comes forward to offer the best dissertation writing service at the most affordable rates. The services offered by the company range from essay writing to dissertation outline copywriting to thesis writing and much more.

Our company has been in the field for many years and thus earned a rich empirical knowledge of helping students to make a good grade in the exams. Striving to make it even easier for one to have high quality assignment done on time, the company has been the first choice for many. While the academic assignments are the basic building blocks for a student to exhibit his or her skills before climbing up the ladder of the success in academic career, one must avail help from the most experienced academic writers in the market. Besides having years of experience, the company goes an extra mile to meet the requirements and expectations of the client.

Some best reasons for which students should hire our dissertation writers are as follows:

Our experts assure to provide quality reference materials to the students. They compose the research work from reliable materials from scratch. Our writers are bound to do a good research work while composing the documents.

The experts strictly adhere the anti-plagiarism guidelines and ensure that each completed paper is checked by our experts three times. They further use authentic plagiarism detecting software to produce 100 percent original content.

Our team comprises of dissertation writers who have acquired their doctorate degrees from acclaimed universities. They are well-acquainted with minute aspects of academic paper writing. They have excellent writing skills. We also boast a team of highly-skilled subject matter experts.

Our dissertation writing service never compromises with the deadline. Students will get help materials before the deadline.

Writing thesis or dissertation requires undivided attention and focus on a post-graduation student. They may wish to acquire a degree of the Doctorate and progress in their professional field of study. With the rising popularity of doctoral degrees in every field of academics, more and more students are enrolling themselves under prestigious universities. To attain good grades in their degree completion, they need to submit high-quality thesis paper.

The dissertation project is the written report of a student who has framed it after conducting a thorough, detailed research on a given or chosen topic from the University. The student is also expected to seek references from the work of renowned authors and scholars in the relative field and then add them up in a proper manner to frame the copy of their thesis. As easy as it sounds, the writing part of the thesis can be a tedious job, sometimes frustrating, for an individual. The thesis has to be written in the right way so that it gets positively evaluated by the University experts.

Reputed dissertation writing and editing services can help the students in getting fruitful results, and it helps them complete their projects within the stipulated time frame. The professional assistance can contribute to writing the dissertation, and the experts take utmost care of researching, proof reading, the rectification of the errors of the thesis papers on behalf of the students in the most efficient way.

If you are on your verge of obtaining an academic degree from the elite institution, seek help from the professional dissertation writing services.

Here are some of the best reasons to opt for such services:

  • Writing and editing service at a reasonable cost- The service providers usually provide affordable dissertation writing and editing service to the PhD students. They assure to deliver premium quality thesis assignments without burning a hole in your pocket. They will also prepare the paper with the required format for the final submission for the university’s final evaluation.
  • Backed by experienced researchers- The consultancy comprises of experienced professors and research scholars who are well-versed with all traditional and industry targeted subjects. Apart from thesis assistance, students can avail homework and coursework help, report writing and case study help from the experts.
  • Flexible payment methods- Students can place their orders and make the payment using online methods like PayPal, Internet banking, credit card or debit card.

So it’s time to sabotage all your writing concerns from the roots and opt for professional dissertation assistance from the experts.

Many research scholars may believe that it is a crazy notion that one can complete their dissertation in just 90 days. But if you are motivated and ready for some hard work, you can easily accomplish the task in such a short timeframe.

Consider some of the following tips that can help you in completing your dissertation in just 90 days.

Fix time for emails
Reading and replying to your emails may significant amount of your time. When you are frequently checking your mails, not only your work pace gets disturbed, but if it is a mail from a loved one or your friend, you may get emotional reading it and your mind may get diverted from your dissertation. So, fix a time for emails like half an hour in the morning and half an hour in the evening. Check and reply to mails during this time to ensure that you do not get distracted when you are working in your dissertation.

Choose the times to work on your dissertation
Select times when you are highly productive, like in the mornings, evenings or even at nights. You can pick these hours to work on your dissertation and do nothing else. Additionally, choose a place where you want to work, in your bedroom or dining area, or sitting in your working desk. Claim your own private space where you won’t get disturbed by roommates, loved ones or friends. Ensure that you have adequate lighting in the room and all the equipment and materials you require.

Jot down your work routine for the next 90 days
If you do not have a work routine, you may get confused. So, before you start working on your dissertation, you can lay down your working plan, including the time frame you require for completing the introduction, literature review, methodology page, results, evaluation and summary. In this way, you will have a clear idea about the time you need to dedicate for each chapter. This will help you remain focused and complete your dissertation within the specific time frame.

Map out a plan to deal with writer’s block
During these 90 days, you may often face writer’s block. So, decide how you are going to get out of the writer’s block, like going out for a movie with friends, chatting with your loved ones, reading your favorite novel, watching television or doing nothing but simply relaxing.

Prior to undertaking any PhD research project, your research proposal is the first document that you submit to your university for funding purposes. Although the submitted proposal is not expected to be “perfect” in all respect, it must provide clarity on the type of research that you will undertake. Your supervisors or project funder should also learn about the scope of your research and its viability, by reading your proposal.

Listed below are some common mistakes that you can avoid when writing your PhD proposal:

  • Communicate the importance of your project with aggression.
    Most research proposals do not communicate the student’s interest in the selected subject aggressively, neither do they convey the overall importance of the research work.
  • Not more than 1,500 words long.
    Though there is no word limit, do not make your proposal more than around 1,500 words long. Ensure that your proposal should include the proposed project title, abstract, research questions, basic concepts, methodology, and the time scale of your research. Avoid overuse of jargon in your proposal.
  • The subject of your research is ambiguous.
    A common mistake in most proposals is the research subject is either not clear or specific. Your research title must focus on the specific nature of the research.
  • Failure to interest the project funder.
    Most proposed research, though important, fail to raise the interest level of the funder. Ensure that your research topic is of interest to your funder, and is able to convince them on why you are qualified to carry out this research work. Research projects that are out of scope for your overall program or require unrealistic budgets can also get rejected by the funder.
  • Lack of planned time
    Your proposal must also contain the rough timeline of how you plan to complete your research within the deadlines. Include a monthly or quarterly estimate of the tasks that you plan to complete.
  • Poor presentation
    In the case of PhD programs where there are no personal interviews, your submitted proposal is the sole document that will determine the approval or rejection of your proposed research. Submit a neat document with good presentation to reduce the risk of rejection.
    A good research proposal always evolves in its content with the progression of your research. Consider your initial submission as the first draft and be prepared to revise it, based on suggestions and comments provided by your project supervisors.

Writing a PhD thesis or a dissertation can be challenging for students, especially when it includes a number of independent chapters. Additionally, the combination of all these chapters must support and build on your overall research question. Most readers would feel lost going through chapters with around 80,000 to 1,00,000 words.
Irrespective of the chapter content or the research topic, each chapter can have some basic building blocks that writers can use for conveying their information:

  1. Linking to the previous or next chapter.
    You can start (or even conclude) every chapter with a brief of your previous (or next) chapter respectively. Do not make it too lengthy to sound repetitive to the reader. Alternatively, concluding any chapter with a summary of the discussion in the next chapter enables you to start each chapter on a fresh note.
    Additionally, link the discussion in each chapter with the overall research question and how it contributes the overall argument. Links to prior material in your thesis can elaborate how this chapter builds on your arguments in the earlier chapters.
  1. Include the focus point of each chapter.
    Inform your reader on what is the focus of each chapter and its objective. Build an argument of how each topic in your chapter can lead to your discussion in the next topic. The combined set of topics can ultimately contribute to your overall chapter focus.
  1. Break up your chapter into sections.
    Each section of text must have an appropriate heading (and sub-headings) that can indicate the purpose of the section. Do not use redundant headings like “Introduction” or “Overview” in chapter beginnings, as the start of any chapter always serve this purpose.
    Include a paragraph (or two) of a framing text before getting into the main body of the section. Chapters with 8000 to 12000 words can usually have 2, 3, or even 4 sections in the main body.
  1. Provide a summary or conclusion.
    Each chapter must include a substantial summary or conclusion of the discussion points and findings. Assuming that the reader has limited time to read through your entire chapter, the summary can be a brief collection of the key points that you want the reader to remember.
    Chapters with a consistent flow and structure can not only be helpful to readers, but also help you, as a writer, to not navigate away from the central focus point of each chapter.